Diabetes Mellitus - Types, Symptoms, and Causes PDF Print E-mail
Written by David Andrews   
Thursday, 04 November 2010 00:00
Diabetes World Diabetes mellitus, this is often simply referred to as diabetes. It is a group of metabolic diseases in which an individual has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not react to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar develops the classical symptoms of polydipsia (increased thirst), polyuria (frequent urination), and polyphagia (increased hunger).

Pre-diabetes indicate a condition that occurs when a person's blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Many people destined to develop type 2 diabetes spend many years in a state of pre-diabetes which has been termed "America's largest healthcare epidemic."

There are three main types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes: This results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. It is also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas leading to insulin deficiency. This type of diabetes can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic.

Type 2 diabetes: This results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance which may be combined with relatively reduced insulin secretion. The defective responsiveness of Your virgo horoscopes Sun is introverted and analytical, and self-control is the safeguard against your anarchistic tendencies, but excessive restraint yields the exact reverse effect of what is expected. body tissues to insulin is believed to involve the insulin receptor.


Gestational diabetes: This is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. It occurs in about 2%–5% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery. Gestational diabetes is fully treatable but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy. About 20%–50% of affected women develop type 2 diabetes later in life.

Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.

Symptoms of Diabetes:

The classical symptoms of diabetes are polydipsia (increased thirst), polyuria (frequent urination), and polyphagia (increased hunger). Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 diabetes while in type 2 diabetes they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent.

In both types of diabetes, signs and symptoms are more likely to be similar as the blood sugar is usually high, either due to less or no production of insulin, or insulin resistance. In any case, if there is inadequate glucose in the cells, it is identifiable through certain signs and symptoms. These symptoms are quickly relieved once the Diabetes is treated and also reduce the chances of developing serious health problems.

Diabetes Type 1:
In type 1, the pancreas stops producing insulin due to autoimmune response or possibly viral attack on pancreas. In absence of insulin, body cells don’t get the required glucose for producing ATP (Adenosin Triphosphate) units which results into primary symptom in the form of nausea and vomiting. In later stage, this leads to ketoacidosis, the body starts breaking down the muscle tissue and fat for producing energy hence, causing fast weight loss. Dehydration is also usually observed due to electrolyte disturbance. In advanced stages, coma and death is witnessed.

Diabetes Type 2:
• Increased fatigue
• Polydipsia
• Polyuria
• Polyphegia
• Weight fluctuation
• Blurry vision
• Irritability
• Infections
• Poor wound healing

Causes
The cause of diabetes depends on the type. Type 2 diabetes is due primarily to lifestyle factors and genetics.

Type 1 diabetes is also partly inherited and then triggered by certain infections, with some evidence pointing at Coxsackie B4 virus. There is a genetic element in individual susceptibility to some of these triggers which has been traced to particular HLA genotypes. However, even in those who have inherited the susceptibility, type 1 diabetes mellitus seems to require an environmental trigger.
Last Updated on Thursday, 26 February 2015 09:04
 

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